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Chapter XIII.—The Quaker Settlement.
A quiet scene now rises before us. A large roomy, neatly painted kitchen, its yellow floor, glossy and smooth, and without a particle of dust; a neat well-blacked cooking stove; rows of shining tin, suggestive of unmentionable good things to the appetite; glossy, green, wood chairs, old and firm; a small flag-bottomed rocking chair, with a patch work cushion in it, neatly contrived out of small pieces of different colored woollen goods, and a larger sized one, motherly and old, whose wide arms breathed hospitable invitation, seconded by the solicitation of its feathered cushions—a real comfortable, persuasive, old chair, and worth, in the way of honest homely enjoyment, a dozen of your plush or brochetelle drawing-room gentry—and in the chair, gently swaying back and forward, her eyes bent on some fine sewing, sat our old friend Eliza. Yes, there she is—paler and thinner than in her Kentucky home—with a world of quiet sorrow lying under the shadow of her long eyelashes, and marking the outline of her gentle mouth! It was plain to see how old and firm the girlish heart was grown under the discipline of heavy sorrow; and when, anon, her large dark eye was raised to follow the gambols of her little Harry—who was sporting, like some tropical butterfly, hither and thither over the floor, she showed a depth of firmness and steady resolve that was never there in her earlier and happier days.
By her side sat a woman with a bright tin pan in her lap, into which she was carefully sorting some dried peaches. She might be fifty-five or sixty; but here was one of those faces that time seems to touch only to brighten and adorn. The snowy lisse crape cap, made after the strait quaker pattern—the plain, white muslin handkerchief, lying in placid folds across her bosom—the drab shawl and dress, show at once the community to which she belonged. Her face was round and rosy, with a healthful downy softness, suggestive of a ripe peach. Her hair, partially silvered by age, was parted smoothly back from a high placid forehead, on which time had written no inscription, except peace on earth, good will to men—and beneath shone a large pair of clear, honest, loving brown eyes; you only needed to look straight into them, to feel that you saw to the bottom of a heart as good and true as ever throbbed in woman’s bosom. So much has been said and sung of beautiful young girls! why don’t somebody wake up to the beauty of old women? If any want to get up an inspiration under this head, we refer them to our good friend Rachel Halliday—just as she sits there in her little rocking chair. It had a turn for quacking and squeaking—that chair had—either from having taken cold in early life, or from some asthmatic affection, or perhaps from nervous derangement—but, as she gently swung backward and forward, the chair kept up a kind of subdued “creechy crouchy,” that would have been intolerable in any other chair. But old Simeon Halliday often declared it was as good as any music to him, and the children all avowed that they wonldn’t miss of hearing mother’s chair for anything in the world. For why? for twenty years or more, nothing but loving words, and gentle moralities and motherly loving kindness, had come from that chair—head-aches and heart-aches innumerable had been cured there—difficulties spiritual and temporal solved there—all by one good loving woman, God bless her!
“And so thee still thinks of going to Canada, Eliza?” she said, as she was quietly looking over her peaches.
“Yes, ma’am,” said Eliza, firmly. “I must go onward. I dare not stop.”
“And what’ll thee do, when thee gets there? Thee must think about that, my daughter.”
“My daughter” came naturally from the lips of Rachel Halliday; for her’s was just the face and form that made “mother” seem the most natural word in the world.
Eliza’s hands trembled, and some tears fell on her fine work, but she answered firmly—
“I shall do—anything I can find. I hope I can find something.”
“Oh, thank you,” said Eliza, “but—she pointed to Harry—I can’t sleep nights; I can’t rest. Last night I dreamed I saw that man coming into the yard”—she said, shuddering.
“Poor child,” said Rachel, wiping her eyes, “but thee mustn’t feel so. The Lord hath ordered it so, that never hath a fugitive been stolen from our village. I trust thine will not be the first.”
The door here opened, and a little short, round pincushiony woman stood at the door, with a cherry blooming face, like a ripe apple. She was dressed like Rachel, in sober grey, with the muslin folded neatly across her round plump little chest.
“Ruth Stedman,” said Rachel, coming joyfully forward, “how is thee, Ruth,” she said, heartily taking both her hands.
“Nicely,” said Ruth, taking off her little drab bonnet, and dusting it with her handkerchief, displaying, as she did so, a round little head, on which the quaker cap sat with a sort of jaunty air, despite all the stroking and patting of the small fat hands, which were busily applied to arranging it. Certain stray locks of decidedly curly hair, too, had escaped here and there, and had to be coaxed and cajoled into their place again; and then the new comer, who might have been five and twenty, turned from the small looking-glass, before which she had been making these arrangements, and looked well pleased—as most people who looked at her might have been—for she was decidedly a wholesome, whole-hearted, chirruping little woman as ever gladdened man’s heart withal.
“Ruth, this friend is Eliza Harris; and this is the little boy I told thee off.”
“I’m glad to see thee Eliza; very,” said Ruth, shaking hands, as if Eliza were an old friend she had been long expecting; “and this is thy dear boy—I brought a cake for him,” she said, holding out a little heart to the boy, who came up, gazing through his curls, and accepted it shyly.
“Where’s thy baby, Ruth?”
“Oh, he’s coming; but thy Mary caught him as I came in, and ran off with him to the barn, to show him to the children.”
At this moment, the door opened, and Mary, an honest, rosy looking girl, with large brown eyes like her mother’s, came in with the baby:
“Ah! ha!” said Rachel, coming up, and taking the great white fat fellow in her arms, “how good he looks, and how he does grow!”
“To be sure he does,” said little bustling Ruth, as she took the child, and began taking off a little blue silk hood, and various layers and wrappers of outer garments; and having given a twitch here, and a pull there, and variously adjusted and arranged him, and kissed him heartily, she sat him on the floor to collect his thoughts. Baby seemed quite used to this mode of proceeding, for he put his thumb in his mouth (as if it were quite a thing of course) and seemed soon absorbed in his own reflections, while the mother seated herself, and taking out a long stocking of mixed blue and white yarn, began to knit with briskness.
“Mary, thee’d better fill the kettle, had’nt thee?” gently suggested the mother.
Mary took the kettle to the well and soon reappeared, placed it over the stove, where it was soon purring and steaming, a sort of censer of hospitality and good cheer. The peaches, moreover, in obedience to a few gentle whispers from Rachel, were soon deposited, by the same hand, in a stew-pan over the fire.
Rachel now took down a snowy moulding board, and tying on an apron, proceeded quietly to making up some biscuits, first saying to Mary—“Mary, had’nt thee better tell John to get a chicken ready?” and Mary disappeared accordingly.
“And how is Abigail Peters?” said Rachel as she went on with her biscuits.
“Oh, she’s better” said Ruth; “I was in, this morning, made the bed, tidied up the house. Leah Hills went in this afternoon, and baked bread and pies enough to last some days, and I engaged to go back to get her up this evening.”
“I will go in to-morrow, and do any cleaning there may be, and look over the mending,” said Rachel.
“Ah! that is well,” said Ruth. “I’ve heard,” she added, “that Hannah Stanwood is sick. John was up there last night—I must go there to-morrow.”
“John can come in here to his meals, if there needs to stay all day,” suggested Rachel.
“Thank thee, Rachel; will see to-morrow; but here comes Simeon.”
Simeon Halliday, a tall, straight, muscular man, in drab coat and pantaloons, and broad brimmed hat, now entered.
“How is thee, Ruth?” he said, warmly, as he spread his broad open hand for her little fat palm; “and how is John?”
“Oh! John is well, and all the rest of our folks,” said Ruth cheerily.
“Any news Father?” said Rachel, as she was putting her biscuits into the oven.
“Peter Stebbins told me that they should be along to night with friends,” said Simeon significantly, as he was washing his hands, at a neat sink, in a little back porch.
“Indeed!” said Rachel, looking thoughtfully, and glancing at Eliza.
“Did thee say thy name was Harris?” said Simeon to Eliza, as he re-entered.
Rachel glanced quickly at her husband, as Eliza tremulously answered “yes.” Her fears ever uppermost, suggesting that possibly there might be advertisements out for her.
“Mother!” said Simeon, standing in the porch, and calling Rachel out.
“What does thee want, father?” said Rachel, rubbing her floury hands, as she went into the porch.
“This child’s husband is in the settlement, and will be here to night,” said Simeon.
“Now thee doesn’t say that, father?” said Rachel, all her face radiant with joy.
“It’s really true. Peter was down yesterday with the wagon to the other stand, and there he found an old woman and two men; and one said his name was George Harris; and, from what he told of his history, I am certain who he is—he is a bright likely fellow too.
“Shall we tell her now?” said Simeon.
“Let’s tell Ruth,” said Rachel. “Here, Ruth, come here.”
Ruth laid down her knitting work, and was in the back porch in a moment.
“Ruth, what does thee think?” said Rachel. “Father says Eliza’s husband is in the last company, and will be here to-night.”
A burst of joy from the little quakeress interrupted the speech. She gave such a bound from the floor as she clapped her little hands, that two stray curls fell from under her quaker cap, and lay brightly on her white neckerchief.
“Hush thee dear!” said Rachel, gently! “hush Ruth! Tell us, shall we tell her now?”
“Now! to be sure—this very minute. Why, now, suppose ’twas my John, how should I feel? Do tell her, right off.”
“Thee uses thyself only to learn how to love thy neighbor, Ruth,” said Simeon, looking with a beaming face on Ruth.
“To be sure. Isn’t it what we are made for? If I didn’t love John and the baby, I should not know how to feel for her. Come, now, do tell her, do;” and she laid her hands persuasively on Rachel’s arm. “Take her into thy bed-room, then, and let me fry the chicken while thee does it.”
Rachel came out into the kitchen where Eliza was sewing, and opening the door of a small bed-room, said, gently, “Come in here with me, my daughter, I have news to tell thee.”
The blood flushed in Eliza’s pale face; she rose, trembling with nervous anxiety, and looked towards her boy.
“No, no,” said little Ruth, darting up and seizing her hands. “Never thee fear, it’s good news, Eliza—go in, go in.” And she gently pushed her to the door, which closed after her; and then turning round, she caught little Harry in her arms, and began kissing him.
“Thee’ll see thy father, little one. Does thee know it? Thy father is coming,” she said, over and over again, as the boy looked wonderingly at her.
Meanwhile, within the door another scene was going on. Rachel Halliday drew Eliza toward her, and said—“The Lord hath had mercy on thee, daughter; thy husband hath escaped from the house of bondage”
The blood flushed to Eliza’s cheek in a sudden glow, and went back to her heart with as sudden a rush. She sat down, pale and faint.
“Have courage, child,” said Rachel, laying her hand on her head. “He is among friends, who will bring him here to-night.”
“To-night!” Eliza repeated, “to-night!” The words lost all meaning to her; her head was dreamy and confused—all was mist for a moment.
When she awoke, she found herself snugly tucked up on the bed, with a blanket over her, and little Ruth rubbing her hands with camphor. She opened her eyes in a state of dreamy, delicious languor, such as one has who has long been bearing a heavy load, and now feels it gone, and would rest. The tension of the nerves, which had never ceased a moment since the first hour of her flight, had given way, and a strange feeling of security and rest came over her; and as she lay, with her large, dark eyes open, she followed, as in a quiet dream, the motions of those about her. She saw the door open into the other room, saw the supper table with its snowy cloth, heard the dreamy murmur of the singing tea-kettle, saw Ruth tripping backward and forward, with plates of cake and saucers of preserves, and ever and anon stopping to put a cake into Harry’s hand, or pat his head, or twine his long curls round her snowy fingers. She saw the ample, motherly form of Rachel, as she ever and anon came to the bed-side, and smoothed and arranged something about the bedclothes, and gave a tuck here and there, by way of expressing her good will, and was conscious of a kind of sunshine beaming down upon her from her large, clear, brown eyes. She saw Ruth’s husband come in—saw her fly up to him and commence whispering very earnestly, ever and anon, with impressive gesture, pointing her little finger toward the room. She saw her with the baby in her arms, sitting down to tea—she saw them all at table, and little Harry in a high chair, under the shadow of Rachel’s ample wing; there were low murmurs of talk, gentle tinkling of tea-spoons, and musical clatter of cups and saucers, and all mingled in a delightful dream of rest—and Eliza slept as she had not slept before since the fearful midnight hour when she had taken her child and fled through the frosty star-light.
She dreamed of a beautiful country—a land, it seemed to her, of rest—green shores, pleasant islands, and beautifully glittering water, and there in a house which kind voices told her was a home, she saw her boy playing, a free and happy child. She heard her husband’s footsteps, she felt him coming nearer, his arms were around her, his tears falling on her face, and she woke! It was no dream. The daylight had long faded, her child lay calmly sleeping by her side, a candle was burning dimly on the stand, and her husband was sobbing by her pillow.
The next morning was a cheerful one at the Quaker house. “Mother” was up by times, and surrounded by busy girls and boys, whom we had scarce time to introduce to our readers yesterday, and who all moved obediently to Rachel’s gentle “Thee had better,” or more gentle “Hadn’t thee better?” in the work of getting breakfast—for a breakfast in the luxurious valleys of Indiana is a thing complicated and multiform, and like picking up the rose-leaves and trimming the bushes in Paradise, asking other hands than those of the original mother. While, therefore, John ran to the spring for fresh water, and Simeon the second sifted meal for corn cakes, and Mary ground coffee, Rachel moved gently and quietly about, making biscuits, cutting up chicken, and diffusing a sort of sunny radiance over the whole proceeding generally. If there was any danger of friction or collision from the ill-regulated zeal of so many young operators, her gentle “come! come!” or “I wouldn’t now,” was quite sufficient to allay the difficulty. Bards have written of the cestus of Venus, that turned the heads of all the world in successive generations. We had rather, for our part, have the cestus of Rachel Halliday that kept heads from being turned, and made everything go on harmoniously. We think it is more suited to our modern days, decidedly.
While all other preparations were going on, Simeon the elder stood in his Ohio sleeves before a little looking-glass in the corner, engaged in the anti-patriarchal operation of shaving. Everything went on so sociably, so quietly, so harmoniously in the great kitchen, it seemed so pleasant to every one to do just what they were doing, there was such an atmosphere of mutual confidence and good fellowship everywhere!—even the knives and forks had a social clatter as they went on to the table; and the chicken and ham had a cheerful and joyous fizzle in the pan, as if they rather enjoyed being cooked than otherwise; and when George and Eliza and little Harry came out, they met such a hearty, rejoicing welcome. No wonder it seemed to them like a dream.
At last they were all seated at breakfast, while Mary stood at the stove baking griddle-cakes, which, as they gained the true exact golden-brown tint of perfection, were transferred quite handily to the table.
Rachel never looked so truly and benignly happy as at the head of her table. There was so much motherliness and full-heartedness even in the way she passed a plate of cakes or poured a cup of coffee, that it seemed to put a spirit into the food and drink she offered.
It was the first time that ever George had sat down on equal terms at any white man’s table, and he sat down at first with some constraint and awkwardness, but they all exhaled and went off like fog in the genial morning rays of this simple, overflowing kindness.
This, indeed, was a home—home—a word that George had never yet known a meaning for—and a belief in God and trust in his providence began to encircle his heart as with a golden cloud of protection and confidence; dark, misanthropic, pining, atheistic doubts, and fierce despair, melted away before the light of a living gospel, breathed in living faces, preached by a thousand unconscious acts of love and good will, which, like the cup of cold water given in the name of a disciple, shall never lose their reward.
“Father, what if thee should get found out again?” said Simeon second as he buttered his cake.
“I should pay my fine,” said Simeon, quietly.
“But what if they put thee in prison?”
“Couldn’t thee and mother manage the farm?” said Simeon, smiling.
“Mother can do almost everything,” said the boy. “But isn’t it a shame to make such laws?”
“Thee musn’t speak evil of thy rulers, Simeon,” said his father, gravely. “The Lord only gives us our worldly goods that we may do justice and mercy; if our rulers require a price of us for it, we must deliver it up”
“Well, I hate those old slaveholders,” said the boy, who felt as unchristian as became any modern reformer.
“I am surprised at thee, son,” said Simeon; “thy mother never taught thee so. I would do even the same for the slaveholder as for the slave, if the Lord brought him to my door in affliction.”
Simeon second blushed scarlet, but his mother only smiled and said, “Simeon is my good boy; he will grow older, by and by, and then he will be like his father.”
“I hope, my good sir, that you are not exposed to any difficulty on our account,” said George, anxiously.
“Fear nothing, George, for therefore are we sent into the world. If we would not meet trouble for a good cause, we were not worthy of our name.”
“But for me,” said George—“I could not bear it.”
“Fear not, then, friend George—it is not for thee, but for God and man, we do it,” said Simeon. “And now thou must lie by quietly this day, and to-night, at ten o’clock, Phineas Fletcher will carry thee onward to the next stand—thee and the rest of thy company. The pursuers are hard after thee—we must not delay.”
“If that is the case, why wait till evening?” said George.
“Thou art safe here by daylight, for every one in the settlement is a Friend, and all are watching. It has been found safer to travel by night.”
[to be continued.]
This Stowe Center edition reproduces the National Era serial text of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. The wording of the newspaper in many cases differs from publisher John P. Jewett’s first edition. At the conclusion of each installment, notes are provided on a small selection of textual variants, those which have the greatest interpretive significance. The model for these notes is editor John Bryant’s concept of fluid-text editing, which foregrounds the interpretation of textual variants as an act of critical reading. Readers who hold alternate interpretations are encouraged to submit comments to the blog. For general comments on the text and the bibliography, see the Note on the Text.
sixty; but here was one | Era pg. 141
sixty; but hers was one | Jewett (1852) vol. 1, pg. 196
The Era form “here” is a defensible reading, especially given Stowe’s tendency to set a scene by addressing the reader with “let” or “let us” in the subjective mood, the indicative form “here,” or the imperative “behold.” Such forms are in keeping with her announced purpose in the March 9, 1851 letter to Gamaliel Bailey: Stowe identified her “vocation” as “that of a painter” and described her treatment of her subject as being to “hold up in the most lifelike and graphic manner possible Slavery” (Kirkham 66–67).
However, the Jewett edition form “hers” probably reflect authorial preference. It appears in all subsequent reprints in which Stowe had a role. Furthermore, the Era phrase “for her’s was just” is corrected in the Jewett edition to “for hers was just.” The serial compositor may have stumbled in addressing Stowe’s deliberate archaism in her Quaker speech, which gives this chapter a tone of studied linguistic formality. For example, the Era has “was up by times,” which is corrected in the Jewett edition to “was up betimes.” The corrections can be attributed to Stowe, but the errors, which are difficult to detect in the serial, reflect defensible readings. The additional passages addressed here are not corrected and are not marked in the Stowe Center text. [Back]
subdued “creechy crouchy,” that would | Era pg. 141
subdued “creechy crawchy,” that would | Jewett (1852) vol. 1, pg. 196
In the Era, the chair’s noise is described as “crouchy.” The Jewett edition word “crawchy” may be the authorial preference. But evidence is scant because either onomatopoeic form is a nonce word, which appears once in Stowe’s text. Either word imitates the sound of the chair, and either is Stowe’s coinage.
Present-day readers may consider the Jewett edition form as the superior reading, but long familiarity with the Jewett form shapes our preference. Readers of the serial in 1851 had no reason to consider “crouchy” faulty if it passed as a suggestive onomatopoeic rendering of the chair’s sound. [Back]
shuddering. ¶ “Poor child,,’ said Rachel, | Era pg. 141
shuddering. ¶“Poor child,” said Rachel, | Emended
shuddering. ¶ “Poor child!” said Rachel, | Jewett (1852) vol. 1, pg. 197
In the Era, the text has an obvious typesetting problem, what appears to be two commas followed by a single closing quote. Examined closely, it appears more likely that the two commas are in fact an inverted opening quote. What was probably intended by the Era compositor, and which reflected Stowe’s manuscript, is a comma followed by a double quote, which the typesetter inadvertently flipped while placing metal pieces of type in the composing stick. In the Jewett edition, the word “child” is followed by an exclamation point. As the exclamation point is most likely to be an authorial revision, an editorially emended form is included in this Stowe Center text, the presumed manuscript form of comma followed by closing quote.
Likewise, below, the Era has five additional obvious typesetting errors, the words “long eyelahes,” “wonldn’t miss,” and “wholesom, whole-hearted”; the form “table; and -he chicken”; and the phrase “first time that even George had.” Because the errors are obvious to most readers—the word “eyelahes” lacks an “s”; the first “n” in “wonldn’t” is an inverted “u”; the word “wholesome” lacks an “e”; a hyphen character replaces the “t” in “the”; and “ever” is intended rather than “even”—all five words are corrected in the Stowe Center text to accord with the Jewett edition forms.
Recall that the serial compositors, who for this portion of the text set type from a handwritten manuscript, had less time for proofreading and a more challenging task than the Jewett compositors, who set type from serial copy of Stowe’s novel. The internal evidence for this belief is that the two versions are quite consistent in wording forms for this portion of the text. The textual evidence for later portions of the work departs from this pattern, so the inference that Jewett edition set from serial is not always defensible. [Back]
with a cherry blooming face, | Era pg. 141
with a cheery, blooming face, | Jewett (1852) vol. 1, pg. 197
In the Era, Ruth Stedman’s face is described as “cherry blooming.” In the Jewett edition, she has a “cheery, blooming face.” In both texts, Stowe follows with a simile to describe the quality of her face, “like a ripe apple.” The serial text could be viewed as having an odd clash of fruit metaphors, cherry and apple, except that cherry refers to the type of bloom or flower. The revision to the Jewett edition text removes this fruit-flower clash by replacing “cherry” with “cheery.”
As the word cherry in the serial is hyphenated at line end, compositorial error is increased in likelihood. However, recall that Rachel Halliday’s face was described with both flower and fruit in the same sentence: her face is “rosy,” but its downy quality is “suggestive of a ripe peach.” If the serial form “cherry” is read as a reference to a type of bloom, the serial description of Ruth Stedman’s face parallels the fruit-flower pair that describes Rachel Halliday’s. [Back]
thy baby, Ruth?” [omit] ¶ “Oh, he’s coming; but | Era pg. 141
thy baby, Ruth?” said Rachel. ¶ “O, he ’s coming; but | Jewett (1852) vol. 1, pg. 198
Rachel has been the only speaker to address Ruth. But Rachel and Eliza Harris are in converstation when Ruth arrives. In the Era, the question addressed to Ruth about the baby is attributed to no speaker. Presumably, Stowe in the Jewett edition adds the speaker attribution to indicate that Rachel, not Eliza, is the speaker.
If the serial reader considered it possible that Eliza was the speaker, it could indicate Eliza’s active engagement in her surroundings, wherein her own concern about Ruth’s child prompts her to speak. But both in the Quaker chapter, as in the Burr chapter preceding, Eliza is more often the passive recipient of assistance. After her flight with little Harry, in which Eliza is at the center of narrative focus and Stowe emphasizes her effort to will her own fate, she becomes the recipient of white beneficence. Only when she awakes (below) does the reader again glimpse her interior state. Though Eliza as speaker is unlikely since the conversation that precedes is between Ruth and Rachel exclusively—and the pattern of Eliza’s passivity supports such an assumption—the revision to Jewett edition removes possibility that Eliza spoke by attributing the question to Rachel. [Back]
in his Ohio sleeves before a | Erapg. 141
in his shirt-sleeves before a | Jewett (1852) vol. 1, pg. 205
The Era form “Ohio sleeves” has no known referent for a type of sleeve. The Jewett word “shirt-sleeves” offers an obvious correction for an obscure serial form, which is attested neither in GoogleBooks or in the periodical database APS Online. If Ohio is an adjective for geographical location of Simeon Halliday’s sleeves—though why to so designate them is unclear—the phrase introduces another discrepancy. Stowe previously placed the Halliday household in the “luxuriant valleys of Indiana.” In the serial, the paradoxical geography (both in Indiana and Ohio) may highlight the Edenic location of the Halliday household, in which geographical boundaries are meaningless.
The 1850 Fugitive Slave Law meant that geographical boundaries for slavery in the United States were more permeable—the law required northerners to assist in capture of fugitives so they could be returned to slavery—Stowe’s fantasy of a loving household in which slavery is abolished may demand a fanciful geography. The “Indiana” kitchen is compared metaphorically to “Paradise,” and Simeon Halliday’s shaving location is another fanciful abstraction, an “anti-patriarchal” location in which the male figure in the household sees himself as easily dispensable. Readers of the Stowe Center text are invited to offer ideas in comment section to clarify (or speculate on) this obscure serial form. [Back]
Copyright 2011. For introduction and annotation, all rights reserved. The text is distributed under a Creative Commons License. Uncle Tom’s Cabin: National Era by Harriet Beecher Stowe is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at Copyright Commons License.